غذا با طعم حق ‏مؤلف: امکان‏ سنجی حمایت حقوق مالکیت ادبی و هنری از ابتکارات آشپزی (مطالعة تطبیقی در حقوق امریکا و ایران)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار، دانشکدة الهیات و معارف اسلامی شهید مطهری، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

آشپزها با استفاده از انواع رسانه‏ها تلاش می‏کنند غذاهای مختلف با طرزتهیه و مواد تشکیل‏دهندة متنوع را به مخاطبان ارائه دهند. ابتکار در این بخش به قدری است که امروزه از هنر آشپزی سخن به میان می‏آید. همین امر سبب شده ‏است موضوع حمایت از ابتکارات غذایی، شامل دستورپخت و سفره‏آرایی، در قالب اعطای حقوق مالکیت ادبی و هنری به پدیدآورندگان آن‌ها مطرح شود. در امریکا، دعاوی اقامه‏شده برای حمایت از دستورپخت و شکل غذاها تا کنون با موفقیت همراه نبوده است؛ هرچند دادگاه‏ها امکان برخورداری این ابتکارات از کپی‏رایت را به طور کلی نفی نکرده‏اند. نتایج این تحقیق، که به شیوة توصیفی‌ـ تحلیلی نگاشته شده است، نشان می‏دهد دستورپخت‏های فراتر از بیان سادة ترکیبات و روش تهیة غذا، که بیانگر هنر و ذوق و قریحة فرد باشد، به شرط تثبیت در حامل فیزیکی در حقوق امریکا و تجسم خارجی یافتن در حقوق ایران، حمایت‏پذیرند. البته، به دلیل حمایت‏ناپذیری ایده، منع دیگران از تهیة غذای موضوع دستورپخت ممکن نیست. شکل و شیوة ارائة غذاها نیز در صورت تحقق شرایط یادشده از حمایت برخوردار می‏شود. البته، شرط تثبیت در حامل فیزیکی بادوام حمایت از برخی سفره‏آرایی‏ها را در حقوق امریکا با مشکل مواجه می‏کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Food with a taste of copyright: feasibility of protecting culinary creations through artistic and literary law (comparative study of American and Iranian Laws)

نویسنده [English]

  • Sayyed Mohammad Hadi Ghabooli Dorafshan
Assistant Professor, Shahid Motahari Faculty of Theology and Islamic Studies, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Chefs attempt to present different foods with a variety of recipes and ingredients to their audience using all types of media. Creativity, in this sector, is to the extent that nowadays people talk about the cooking art. This has led the issue of protecting culinary creations including recipes and food plating through literary and artistic rights, to arise. In the U.S, the actions already brought to protect recipes and food presentations have failed, although courts have not, as a general rule, refused the possibility of these creations to be copyrighted. The results of this descriptive-analytical article show that recipes going beyond mere listing of a food ingredients and its preparation method which indicate the person’s art, taste and talent are protectable provided that they are fixed in a tangible medium in the American law and expressed in Iranian law. However, since ideas are not protectable, third parties may not be prevented from cooking the food explained in recipes. The form of food and way of its presentation, where the above said conditions are met, would be protected too. Indeed, the requirement to be fixed in a stable tangible medium makes it difficult to protect some food presentations in U.S law.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Recipe
  • Food Presentation
  • Literary and Artistic Law
  • Originality
  • fixation in a tangible medium
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