تحلیل معیارهای احراز اصالت آثار معماری در حقوق مالکیت فکری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه حقوق، دانشکدة حقوق و اقتصاد، واحد خمینی‌شهر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اصفهان، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق خصوصی، دانشکدة علوم اداری و اقتصاد، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق خصوصی، دانشکدة حقوق، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

آثار معماری به منزلة یکی از عرصه‌های مهم هنری در اسناد بین‌المللی (همچون بند 1 مادة 2 کنوانسیون برن) و حقوق کشورهای مختلف (مانند بند 7 مادة 2 قانون حمایت از حقوق مؤلفان، مصنفان، و هنرمندان ایران) مورد حمایت قرار گرفته‌اند. اما این حمایت در عمل با چند چالش جدی‌ـ همچون تحلیل مفهوم ساختمان، تفکیک اثر اولیه (نقشه) از ساختمان، تحلیل عنصر اصالت‌ـ مواجه است. در تحقیق حاضر سعی شد عنصر اصالت به مثابة یکی از ارکان اثر قابل حمایت در مخلوقات حوزة معماری تحلیل شود. مهم‌ترین معیارهای اصالت در آثار معماری معیار عدم کارکرد، معیار تجزیه، و معیار مطلق هستند. اما به دلیل نقصان هر یک از این معیارها معیارهای فرعی نیز وجود دارند که می‌توانند در این مسیر به قاضی کمک کنند. تحلیل هر یک از این معیارهای اصلی و فرعی در نهایت محققان را به این نتیجه رهنمون کرد که هیچ‌ معیار برتر و مطلقی وجود ندارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of Criteria for Originality of Architectural Works in Intellectual Property Law

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Javad Abdollahi 1
  • Maryam Sharifi Renani 2
  • Reza Arabzadeh 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Faculty of Law and Economics, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
2 Ph.D. Student in Private Law, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Esfahan University, Esfahan, Iran
3 Ph.D. Student in Private Law, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Architectural works have been protected as one of the most important fields of art in international documents (such as Article 1, paragraph 2, of the Berne Convention) and the law of different countries (such as Article 7, paragraph 2 of the Law on the Protection of Authors, Writers and Artists of Iran). In practice, it faces several serious challenges such as analyzing the concept of the building, separating the original work (plan) from the building, and analyzing the element of originality. In the present article, we have attempted to analyze the element of originality as one of the pillars of a work that can be supported in the field of architecture. The most important criteria of originality in architectural works can be called non-functional criterion, dissection criterion and absolute criterion. However, due to the lack of any of these criteria, there are also sub-criteria that can help the judge in this respect. The analysis of each of these main and sub-criteria ultimately leads us to the conclusion that there is no superior or absolute criterion.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Artistic work
  • Architectural work
  • Originality
  • Idea expression dichotomy
  • Structure
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